Antiquities of ancient Egypt , the ancient Egyptian civilization continued for three thousand years, when its kings left landmarks that reduced a huge amount of skill and knowledge in architecture and arts. Many of their relics are still standing today and in good condition, because many pyramids, temples and sphinxes still attract tourists from all over the world Thousands of years after its construction, as the pyramids were associated with Egyptian civilization in people’s minds despite their presence in many other ancient civilizations; Like the Chinese civilization and the Mayan civilization.
The three pyramids of Giza were built on a rocky plateau located on the west bank of the Nile near Giza in northern Egypt. These pyramids were one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, in addition to being chosen as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979 AD, and the three pyramids are known by the names of the ruler who Built during his reign, the first pyramids were built in the far north during the reign of King Khufu, the second king of the Fourth Dynasty, and he was called the Khufu pyramid , as it is called the Great Pyramid, where the length of each side of its base is 230 meters, and the height is The real is about 147 meters.
The middle pyramid of King Khafre, the fourth king of the Fourth Dynasty, was built and called the Khafre Pyramid . The length of each side of its base is about 216 meters, and its true height is 143 meters. The southern pyramid Menkaure has been built. During the reign of King Menkaure the fifth king of the Fourth Dynasty, each side is 109 meters long, and its true height is about 66 meters.
The three pyramids were looted throughout the antiquity and the middle ages, as their precious contents are not found in the inner tombs, in addition to the disappearance of the outer layer of white lime, which led to a decrease in its true height, with the exception of the Khafre Pyramid as it retains a layer of white limestone in the upper part of it only.
Is the statue of the Sphinx ( in English: Sphinx) of the oldest known archaeological sculptures, a huge statue of him the body of a lion and the face of a man, is located on the Giza Plateau , the location of the pyramids of the Kingdom of ancient three most famous; The pyramid of King Khufu, the pyramid of King Khafra, the son of King Khufu, and the pyramid of King Menkaure, the grandson of King Khufu, and some scholars believe that the face of the statue was the embodiment of the face of King Khafra, and the length of the statue is about 73.5 meters, and the highest height of it is reached about the surface of the earth about 20 meters, and returns Interpretation of the shape of the Sphinx that the king built to serve as a means of observing the pyramids and guardians of temples in the region, and the nose of the statue is lost during the reign of Napoleon , which is one of Antiquities of ancient Egypt.
The Temple of Hatshepsut was built in 1458 BC, and it is located on a slope on the western side of the city of Luxor, and this site was distinguished as a holy place for the god Hathor, as it was used as a monastery after entering the Christian religion, hence its name named Deir el-Bahari, the temple consists of three levels, and the Polish National Academy of Sciences was responsible for the restoration of these three levels, where the ruins of the Anubis Church at the northern end of the second level of the temple were discovered, and the statue of Osiris standing in front of one of the The columns are in the third level of the temple.
The oblique pyramid of Senefru
The first pyramid of Senefru is considered to be the first pyramid to be built in the village of Dahshur. Where it was built according to the different angles of the pyramid, where construction began at an angle of 54 to 55 degrees, and at a height of 45 meters the angle of inclination has decreased to 43 degrees, and there are many views that some believe are a reason for the difference in the angle of the pyramid, including that King Snefru had realized His pyramid began to collapse due to the slope of the angle of inclination, so he decided to reduce the angle in order to avoid its collapse, while the second belief was that construction work had continued for a long time, and then King Senefru decided to reduce the angle to reduce the remaining amount of construction and speed up the construction process, and some suggest that the reason is due to an unknown religious purpose except This reason is not acceptable to many scientists.
The Pyramid of Djoser
The Pyramid of Djoser was discovered during Napoleon’s military campaigns in the period between 1798 AD and 1801 A.D., Djoser was the first king of the Third Dynasty and was the first to construct a stone after it became common to build tombs of dry clay bricks, and the Pyramid of Djoser built his minister, Amhotep, by placing terraces that diminished in size with height Up, forming a step pyramid, where it started with a square terrace with a height of about six meters, in contrast to what was common in the construction of the pyramids with a rectangular base, then Amhotep completed the construction with rectangular pans and the reason for this was not known. at that time.
Luxor Temple is another part of Antiquities of ancient Egypt and it is dates back to 1392 BC on the eastern bank of the Nile, and was dedicated to the gods Mut, Khonsu, and Amun, and it contains ten sections, and the entrance extends for 61 meters, and the temple includes many important landmarks For Egyptian civilization; As the court of Ramesses II, the court of Amenhotep III, the Church of Death, the Church of Khonsu, the Church of Amun, the Hall of Birth, the Sphinx, and the Roman Camp, the walls of the temple were constructed of clay bricks; In order to achieve the symbolism of separation between the Egyptians and their gods.
The Red Pyramid
The Red Pyramid is another Antiquities of ancient Egypt and considered to be the oldest pyramid ever in the world, and it was called the Red Pyramid because of the red covering layer that appeared after the white limestone layer disappeared. Architects built the Red Pyramid at an angle of 43 degrees, i.e. the same angle as the upper part of Milan From the pyramid of Senefru, the pyramid consists of an entrance that has a steep 125-degree slope that heads up and down, in addition to a corridor about 63 meters long that leads to two rooms with roofs up to 12 meters high, and another room inside which has a tomb believed to belong to Sinfru , you maight love to read The most beautiful beaches of the world